Schlagwort-Archive: raspbian

COPS – Another OPDS catalog

The setup using the owncloud app described here works really well. Unless you want to share your books and catalog with someone else and you use the owncloud user also for other stuff and files. Of course it would be possible to create a special books-user and share the folder with other users etc., but this is to complex for my single user installation. Looking for a ebook reader addon, I found COPS – Calibre OPDS (and HTML) PHP Server. COPS generates an OPDS catalog using multiple sorting features and provides a search function. It also includes an ebook reader.

Install some needed packages.

sudo aptitude install php5-gd php5-sqlite php5-json php5-intl

Download the latest version from github.
I created a new subfolder in the webserver’s document root under /var/www/cops/ and extracted the files.

Copy the example configuration.

sudo cp /var/www/cops/config_local.php.example /var/www/cops/config_local.php

Edit the config file and change the path to your ebook directory containing the metadata.db from calibre.

$config['calibre_directory'] = '/media/usb/owncloud/user/files/ebooks/';

Edit your nginx configuration to password-protect your book collection. Add the section to your server configuration.

location /cops {
auth_basic "Restricted";
auth_basic_user_file /etc/nginx/.htpasswd;

Generate the .htpasswd file with your tool of choice. For testing use an online generator.

Point your browser to the encrypted SSL version of your url like https://yourip/cops. It should ask for a username and password and after correct credentials, show you your collection. To use the catalog with an app like FBReader, you need to apend feed.php to the url like https://yourip/cops/feed.php.cops



Drucker/CUPS in Samba auf dem Raspberry deaktivieren

Hat man keinen Drucker in Samba konfiguriert, wird das syslog oft mit Meldungen wie diesen zugespammt:

May 3 07:14:50 pi smbd[4609]: [2016/05/03 07:14:50.925006, 0] printing/print_cups.c:110(cups_connect)
May 3 07:14:50 pi smbd[4609]: Unable to connect to CUPS server localhost:631 – Verbindungsaufbau abgelehnt
May 3 07:14:50 pi smbd[22697]: [2016/05/03 07:14:50.928320, 0] printing/print_cups.c:487(cups_async_callback)
May 3 07:14:50 pi smbd[22697]: failed to retrieve printer list: NT_STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL

Mit ein paar Einträgen in der /etc/samba/smb.conf kann man dieses Verhalten abstellen.


load printers = no
printing = bsd
printcap name = /dev/null
disable spoolss = yes

Raspberry Pi: Owncloud setup revisited

The Raspberry and owncloud ran for a few months now and I really enjoyed my own personal cloud. But I was really annoyed by the poor performance. One possible solution was to switch the sd card, which I did. I replaced the Transcend 16GB SDHC card with a 4GB one. Performance is much better now. Since setting up the system is a pretty simple and fast process, I didn’t bother about cloning the card etc. I reinstalled raspbian and followed my own guide on how to setup nginx and php and oriented on my other tutorial on how to install owncloud 6 beta. Of course I needed to change some links etc.

Some more things (I) changed:

  1. owncloud added security for trusted domains
  2. moved owncloud storage to an external usb drive
  3. changed the nginx webserver configuration: restrict to https only and …
  4. accessing php-fpm through network socket


1. If you access the webinterface of your owncloud instance using different ips, names etc., you need to add them to the „trusted_domains“ parameter.

pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo vi /var/www/owncloud/config/config.php

‚trusted_domains‘ =>
array (
0 => ‚′,
1 => ‚‚,

2. Connect the usb drive and use lsblk and blkid to find the needed UUID.

pi@raspberrypi ~ $ lsblk && blkid
sda 8:0 0 2,7T 0 disk
└─sda1 8:1 0 2,7T 0 part /media/usb
mmcblk0 179:0 0 3,7G 0 disk
├─mmcblk0p1 179:1 0 56M 0 part /boot
└─mmcblk0p2 179:2 0 3,7G 0 part /
/dev/mmcblk0p1: SEC_TYPE=“msdos“ LABEL=“boot“ UUID=“7D5C-A285″ TYPE=“vfat“
/dev/mmcblk0p2: UUID=“5d18be51-3217-4679-9c72-a54e0fc53d6b“ TYPE=“ext4″
/dev/sda1: LABEL=“Backup3TB“ UUID=“1D3F163D4EEC069E“ TYPE=“ntfs“

Create the mountpoint /media/usb and edit /etc/fstab to mount the drive on startup.

pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo mkdir /media/usb

pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo vi /etc/fstab
proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
/dev/mmcblk0p1 /boot vfat defaults 0 2
/dev/mmcblk0p2 / ext4 defaults,noatime 0 1
UUID=1D3F163D4EEC069E /media/usb ntfs-3g defaults,auto, uid=pi,gid=wwwdata,umask=007,users 0 0

While setting up your owncloud, you can now define /media/usb as your data storage. Not sure if there is a way to change this on a already running owncloud setup.


3. Change the nginx configuration (/etc/nginx/sites-availabe/default) according to the owncloud 6 documentation

upstream php-handler {

server {
listen 80;
return 301$request_uri; # enforce https

# HTTPS server
server {
listen 443 ssl;
server_name localhost;

root /var/www;

autoindex off;
index index.php index.html index.htm;

ssl on;
ssl_certificate /etc/nginx/conf.d/ssl/server.crt;
ssl_certificate_key /etc/nginx/conf.d/ssl/server.key;

client_max_body_size 10G; # set max upload size
fastcgi_buffers 64 4K;

rewrite ^/caldav(.*)$ /remote.php/caldav$1 redirect;
rewrite ^/carddav(.*)$ /remote.php/carddav$1 redirect;
rewrite ^/webdav(.*)$ /remote.php/webdav$1 redirect;

index index.php;
error_page 403 /core/templates/403.php;
error_page 404 /core/templates/404.php;

location = /robots.txt {
allow all;
log_not_found off;
access_log off;

location ~ ^/(data|config|\.ht|db_structure\.xml|README) {
deny all;

location / {
# The following 2 rules are only needed with webfinger
rewrite ^/.well-known/host-meta /public.php?service=host-meta last;
rewrite ^/.well-known/host-meta.json /public.php?service=host-meta-json last;

rewrite ^/.well-known/carddav /remote.php/carddav/ redirect;
rewrite ^/.well-known/caldav /remote.php/caldav/ redirect;

rewrite ^(/core/doc/[^\/]+/)$ $1/index.html;

try_files $uri $uri/ index.php;

location ~ ^(.+?\.php)(/.*)?$ {
try_files $1 =404;

include fastcgi_params;
fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$1;
fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $2;
fastcgi_param HTTPS on;
fastcgi_pass php-handler;

# Optional: set long EXPIRES header on static assets
location ~* ^.+\.(jpg|jpeg|gif|bmp|ico|png|css|js|swf)$ {
expires 30d;
# Optional: Don’t log access to assets
access_log off;

4. Modify the php5-fpm config to listen on a netsocket.

 pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo vi /etc/php5/fpm/pool.d/www.conf

;listen = /var/run/php5-fpm.sock
listen =

Restart the services.

pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo service php5-fpm restart
pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo service nginx restart





Raspberry Pi: Update owncloud beta to owncloud 6

The final release of owncloud 6 is now available. Just like the update how to for beta 3, here is how to install it manually.

Download the update on your owncloud server

pi@raspberrypi ~ $  wget

pi@raspberrypi ~ $  tar xfv owncloud-6.0.0.tar.bz2


Create a backup of the files and database

pi@raspberrypi ~ $  mkdir 2013_12_12_Backup_owncloud_beta3/

pi@raspberrypi ~ $  sudo rsync -a /var/www/owncloud/ /home/pi/2013_12_12_Backup_owncloud_beta3/

pi@raspberrypi ~ $  sudo mysqldump owncloud -u root -p > /home/pi/2013_12_12_Backup_owncloud_beta3/owncloud.sql


Copy the update

pi@raspberrypi ~ $  sudo rsync –inplace -rtv owncloud/ /var/www/owncloud/

pi@raspberrypi ~ $  rm -r owncloud owncloud-6.0.0.tar.bz2


Visiting the webinterface of your installation will complete the update.

Raspberry Pi: Selfhosted cloud with ownCloud 6 beta

Quick writeup on how to install the new owncloud 6 beta on your raspberry Pi.

Disclaimer: If you want something superfast, leave this site now. If you’re looking for a really cheap way to get your own cloud (No NSA. So yay!) and give some use to your raspberry pi which is sitting on the shelf since months, here you go. Just don’t expect a 1 to 1 dropbox/drive/$whatever clone.

Prequirements: Working Raspberry Pi with Raspbian (path etc. may vary on other distributions) and a running webserver with php and ssl.

Installation on the Pi
Download the package from here, extract it, move it to the right location and set the correct user rights:

pi@raspberrypi ~ $ wget
pi@raspberrypi ~ $ unzip
pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo mv owncloud /var/www/
pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/owncloud
pi@raspberrypi ~ $ cd /var/www/owncloud/

We need to change a few settings in the php config.

pi@raspberrypi /var/www/owncloud $ sudo vi /etc/php5/fpm/php.ini


upload_max_filesize = 2M
post_max_size = 8M


upload_max_filesize = 1024M
post_max_size = 1024M

and add some lines to the end of the file (we will install apc later):

upload_tmp_dir = /srv/www/owncloud/data/temp
extension =
apc.enabled = 1
apc.include_once_override = 0
apc.shm_size = 256

Create the directory for uploads

pi@raspberrypi /var/www/owncloud $ sudo mkdir -p data/temp
pi@raspberrypi /var/www/owncloud $ sudo chown -R www-data:www-data data

After editing your webserver config according to the documentation, visit http://localhost/owncloud or http://raspberryip/owncloud and check for error messages. In my case, I got two:

1. PHP module GD is not installed. Please ask your server administrator to install the module.

So I needed to install this:

pi@raspberrypi /var/www/owncloud $ sudo aptitude install php5-gd


2. No database drivers (sqlite, mysql, or postgresql) installed.

Of course. After some searching and reading the official documentation about the database configuration, I decided to use MySQL as backend. Mainly because there will be at least two persons using the system. So I installed the mysql-server and php5-mysql package.

pi@raspberrypi /var/www/owncloud $sudo aptitude install mysql-server php5-mysql

After settings the root password, connect to your mysql server. Create a user for owncloud and a database.

pi@raspberrypi /var/www/owncloud $ mysql -u root -h localhost -p
CREATE USER ‚owncloud’@’localhost‘ IDENTIFIED BY ‚password‘;
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON owncloud.* TO ‚owncloud’@’localhost‘ IDENTIFIED BY ‚password‘;

Return to http://localhost/owncloud or http://raspberryip/owncloud and complete the setup process.

Some tips to improve performance:
There are a few guides and tips on the net on how to improve performance of owncloud on your pi. Here are some of them.

1. Install the PHP Accelerator (see modified php.ini at the top)

pi@raspberrypi /var/www/owncloud $ sudo aptitude install php-apc

2. Use a cronjob to update the database and fasten up the webinterface. Open the crontab for the webserver user:

pi@raspberrypi /var/www/owncloud $ sudo crontab -u www-data -e

For updates every 15 minutes add:

*/15 * * * * php -f /var/www/owncloud/cron.php

On the webinterface go to Administration -> Cron and change the setting to Cron.

3. Disable unused apps. Disable all apps you don’t need.


Installation of the owncloud ubuntu client

pat@think:~$ wget
pat@think:~$ sudo apt-key add Release.key
pat@think:~$ echo ‚deb /‘ >> sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/owncloud-client.list
pat@think:~$ sudo aptitude update
pat@think:~$ sudo aptitude install owncloud-client

Sources: (german) (german)

Raspberry Pi: nginx Webserver with PHP and SSL

Installing the needed packages:

pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo aptitude install nginx php5-fpm php5-cgi php5-cli php5-common

There are different version of nginx available. For a comparison take a look at the debian wiki:

Create the needed directory and php test file for later:

pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo mkdir /var/www
pi@raspberrypi ~ $ echo „<?php phpinfo(); ?>“ | sudo  tee /var/www/index.php
pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www

Setting up SSL:

pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo mkdir /etc/nginx/conf.d/ssl && cd /etc/nginx/conf.d/ssl
pi@raspberrypi /etc/nginx/conf.d/ssl $ sudo openssl genrsa -out server.key 2048
pi@raspberrypi /etc/nginx/conf.d/ssl $ sudo openssl req -new -key server.key -out server.csr
pi@raspberrypi /etc/nginx/conf.d/ssl $ sudo openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in server.csr -signkey server.key -out server.crt

And finally configure nginx:

pi@raspberrypi /etc/nginx/conf.d/ssl $ sudo vi /etc/nginx/sites-available/default

server {
listen 80;
root /var/www;
index index.php index.html index.htm;
server_name localhost;
location ~ .php$ {
fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+.php)(/.+)$;
fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php5-fpm.sock;
fastcgi_index index.php;
include fastcgi_params;
try_files $uri $uri/ /index.html;

# HTTPS server
server {
listen 443;
server_name localhost;
root /var/www;
autoindex on;
index index.php index.html index.htm;
ssl on;
ssl_certificate /etc/nginx/conf.d/ssl/server.crt;
ssl_certificate_key /etc/nginx/conf.d/ssl/server.key;
location ~ .php$ {
fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+.php)(/.+)$;
fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php5-fpm.sock;
fastcgi_index index.php;
include fastcgi_params;
try_files $uri $uri/ /index.html;

Visit http://localhost or https://localhost and you should see your php configuration.

Raspberry Pi: Mount and unmount truecrypt on startup and shutdown

My Raspberry Pi functions as a lokal NAS and data haven for backing up remote servers and all my clients. The data is stored in a truecrypt container on an external usb harddrive. The drive is mounted on bootup, as well as the decrypted container. If you follow my notes, please be aware that the password to unlock the files is stored in cleartext in the automount script and could show up when running e.g. ps. So maybe this isn’t the right solution when you grant access to your Pi to other people.


Create the two directories to mount the external harddrive and the truecrypt container.

sudo mkdir /mnt/{usb,truecrypt}

If you use NTFS as a filesystem on your external drive, install the ntfs-3g package and try mounting the it manually first:

pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo aptitude install ntfs-3g
pi@raspberrypi ~ $ mount -t ntfs-3g /dev/sda1 /mnt/usb

When everything works, add the permanent mount entry to your /etc/fstab:

/dev/sda1 /mnt/usb ntfs-3g defaults 0 0

To automount the truecrypt container on startup, install truecrypt like explained here and create the two init scripts for mounting and unmounting the container.


# Provides:          tc_mount
# Required-Start:    $remote_fs $syslog
# Required-Stop:     $remote_fs $syslog
# Default-Start:     2
# Default-Stop:
# Short-Description: tc_mount
# Description:      Mount the truecrypt container
echo „Mounting truecrypt container“
/usr/local/bin/truecrypt -t -k „“ –protect-hidden=no –mount /mnt/usb/crypt /mnt/truecrypt/ -v -m=nokernelcrypto -p ‚YOURPASSWORD‘
exit 0


# Provides:          tc_unmount
# Required-Start:    $remote_fs $syslog
# Required-Stop:     $remote_fs $syslog
# Default-Start:
# Default-Stop:      0 1 6
# Short-Description: tc_unmount
# Description:       Unmount the truecrypt container
echo „Unmounting truecrypt containers“
/usr/local/bin/truecrypt -d
exit 0

And add them to the correct runlevels:

pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo update-rc.d tc_mount start 02 2 .
pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo update-rc.d tc_unmount stop 02 0 1 6 .



Raspberry Pi: Truecrypt on Raspbian

Quick howto on how to install truecrypt on the rapberry pi.

Get the source for Mac OS X/Linux from (Update: and copy the file to the pi:

pat@earth Downloads]$ scp TrueCrypt 7.1a Source.tar.gz pi@pi:/home/pi/

Connect to the pi and extract the archive:

pi@raspberrypi ~ $ tar xfv TrueCrypt 7.1a Source.tar.gz

Even without a GUI, you’ll need WxWidget. Download and extract:

pi@raspberrypi ~ $ wget
pi@raspberrypi ~ $ tar xfv wxWidgets-2.8.12.tar.gz

Install the fuse library:

pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo aptitude install libfuse-dev

Create a folder and download some needed header files:

pi@raspberrypi ~ $ mkdir ~/truecrypt-7.1a-source/pkcs
pi@raspberrypi ~ $ wget*.h -P truecrypt-7.1a-source/pkcs/

Change to the truecrypt directory and compile WxWidgets (takes about 20 minutes):

pi@raspberrypi ~ $ cd truecrypt-7.1a-source/
pi@raspberrypi ~/truecrypt-7.1a-source $ export PKCS11_INC=/home/pi/truecrypt-7.1a-source/pkcs/
pi@raspberrypi ~/truecrypt-7.1a-source $ make NOGUI=1 WX_ROOT=/home/pi/wxWidgets-2.8.12 wxbuild

Now compile truecrypt (~ 40 minutes):

pi@raspberrypi ~/truecrypt-7.1a-source $ make NOGUI=1 WXSTATIC=1

Copy the binary into the bin directory:

pi@raspberrypi ~/truecrypt-7.1a-source $ sudo cp Main/truecrypt /usr/local/bin/

Mount your container:

pi@raspberrypi ~/truecrypt-7.1a-source $ truecrypt -t -k „“ –protect-hidden=no –mount /mnt/usb/crypt /mnt/truecrypt/ -m=nokernelcrypto


pi@raspberrypi ~/truecrypt-7.1a-source $ cd ~
pi@raspberrypi ~ $ rm -r truecrypt-7.1a-source TrueCrypt 7.1a Source.tar.gz wxWidgets-2.8.12*

Edit: I uploaded the binary. If you don’t want to compile truecrypt yourself, feel free to use this one.

Edit 2: If you want to automatically mount the truecrypt container on startup and unmount on shutdown, take a look at this howto.